133 Compulsory Eduction in the US

Holy Crap Accomplishment: Compulsory Education in the U.S.

Compulsory education laws require children to attend a public or state-accredited private school for a certain period of time.

Ancient Judea- Jewish leaders required parents to provide at least informal education for children

Rabbi’s founded many schools

Aztec Triple Alliance – Mexico 15th century – first to require education of all children.

Martin Luther called for mandatory school laws so protestant children could read bible in their own language (Catholics read only in Latin at the time.)

Scotland – School Est. Act of 1616 first to include commoners

Massachusetts colony passed law in 1647.

Massachusetts first U.S. State to pass law in 1852. The 1852 law required every city and town to offer primary school, focusing on grammar and basic arithmetic. Parents who refused to send their children to school were fined and (in some cases) stripped of their parental rights, and their children apprenticed to others.

Prior to this: educ. Provided by private schools run by churches. Poor could not afford tuition.

Immigration of 19th and 20th century – education seen as best way to assimilate immigrant children.

  • Early public schools in the United States did not focus on academics like math or reading. Instead they taught the virtues of family, religion, and community.
  • Girls were usually taught how to read but not how to write in early America.
  • By the mid-19thcentury, academics became the sole responsibility of public schools.
  • By 1900, 31 states had compulsory school attendance for students from ages 8-14. By 1918, every state required students to complete elementary school.
  • 1900, 40% of Americas lived on farms. Many children only went through 8th grade

First Wave: 1920s

1920s: Smith-Towner Act – established Nat. Education Assoc. and provided federal funds to public schools.

Designed to dissolved parochial and other private schools.

Driven by public’s fear of immigrants and the need to Americanize

Because so many schools were catholic, there was an anti-catholic overtone supported by KKK

Also, education bill passed as remedy to child labor concern

Holy Crap Thinking

Fear- of Catholic Church

Fear – of immigration

Fear – of Child Labor

Fear – favoring the rich

2019: 27% of U.S. adults haven’t read a book in the last year. (Pew Study) (hardback or digital)

Up from 19% in 2011.

Follows race and income.

Holy Crap Quote:

“The school of life embodies a compulsory education that no man escapes.”

George Edward Woodberry

“The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn and relearn.” – Alvin Toffler

Holy Crap Challenge:

Think Bigger: What can you learn? Where can you learn it?

Reach Higher: Read. Read. Read. Listen. Seek out mentors.

Do the Impossible: Take command of your learning

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